Loyola University Chicago

LATN 284: The Age of Augustus
LATN 341: Vergil, Aeneid

Spring Semester 2018

Dido and Aeneas, Vatican Vergil ms, c 400, Rome

Substantive1 Grid

arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram; Vergil, Aen. 1.1-4

Noun or Pronoun (if expressed) Adjective (if any; including participles) Sense in Context Gender Case Number Role in Sentence2
arma --- military weapons neut. acc. pl. direct object of main verb
virum --- man masc. acc. sing. direct object of main verb
Troiae --- Troy fem. gen. sing. possessive genitive with oris
qui primus who (as) the first masc. nom. sing. subject of venit in the relative clause; adjective in predicative agreement
oris --- coasts fem. abl. pl. place from which
Italiam --- Italy fem. acc. sing. place to which (poetic omission of preposition)
fato --- fate neut. abl. sing. ablative of cause
(qui again) profugus fugitive masc. nom. sing. predicative agreement with subject of relative clause
litora Lavinia Lavinian shores neut. adc. pl. place to which, still omitting preposition parallel with Italiam
--- multum much neut. acc. sing. accusative of extent with iactatus
ille iactatus that [man who was] tossed about masc. nom. sing. demonstrative and participial phrase extending subject of relative clause
terris --- lands fem. abl. pl. ablative of place where (poetic omission of participle)
--- alto the deep, i.e., the sea neut. abl. sing. ablative of place where (poetic omission of participle)
vi --- violence fem. abl. sing. ablative of means or cause
superum --- gods above masc. gen. pl. genitive of possession with vi
Iunonis saevae fierce Juno fem. gen. sing. genitive of possession with iram
iram memorem mindful wrath fem. acc. sing. accusative of explanation with ob

1"Substantive": a person, an animal, a thing, a concept, etc., when it is being talked about by the sentence - so that, for example, in the sentence legens scit, "The reader knows," the participle (verbal adjective) legens is a substantive, because it refers to a person (unexpressed but implied noun) who at the time of the sentence happens to be performing the action (so, literally, "[the person-who-is] reading"), but in the sentence liber lectus est, "The book has been read," the participle lectus is not a substantive, because it's part of the compound perfect-passive verb.

2"Role in sentence": brief statement of the reason why the substantive takes the form that it takes, in order to tell you what the sentence is using it to tell you.

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Revised 9 January 2018 by jlong1@luc.edu