[Loyola University Chicago]

LATN 281/332: Sallust

Spring Semester 2008
Dr. Jacqueline Long

denarius of L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus: Ceres obv, curule chair & fasces rev, 63BC, Rome

Substantive1 Grid

Omnis homines qui sese student praestare ceteris animalibus summa ope niti decet ne vitam silentio transeant veluti pecora, quae natura prona atque ventri oboedientia finxit. Sall., BC 1.1

Noun or Pronoun (if expressed) Adjective (if any; including participles) Sense in Context Gender Case Number Role in Sentence2
homines omnis all human beings masc. acc. pl. subject of infin. niti, indirect statement dependent on decet
qui --- who masc. nom. pl. subject of relative clause of fact; antecedent omnis homines
sese --- they masc. acc. pl. subject of praestare, indirect statement dependent on student
animalibus ceteris other animate beings neut. dat. pl. dat. reference with praestare
ope summa their uttermost resources fem. abl. sing. abl. of means or manner with niti
vitam --- life fem. acc. sing. direct object of transeant in the negative purpose clause
silentio --- silence neut. abl. sing. one-word abl. of manner with transeant
pecora --- domesticated animals neut. nom. pl. alternative subject for transeant, attached by the comparative conjunction veluti
quae --- which neut. acc. pl. direct object of finxit in the relative clause; antecedent pecora
natura --- Nature (personified) fem. nom. sing. subject of finxit in the relative clause of fact
--- prona downward-facing neut. acc. pl. predicate acc. of quae
ventri --- belly masc. dat. sing. dat. of indirect object with oboedientia
--- oboedientia obedient neut. acc. pl. pres. act. participle as 2nd predicate acc. of quae, attached by conjunction atque

1"Substantive": a person, an animal, a thing, a concept, etc., when it is being talked about by the sentence - so that, for example, in the sentence legens scit, "The reader knows," the participle (verbal adjective) legens is a substantive, because it refers to a person (unexpressed but implied noun) who at the time of the sentence happens to be performing the action (so, literally, "[the person-who-is] reading"), but in the sentence liber lectus est, "The book has been read," the participle lectus is not a substantive, because it's part of the compound perfect-passive verb.

2"Role in sentence": brief statement of the reason why the substantive takes the form that it takes, in order to tell you what the sentence is using it to tell you.

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Revised 12 January 2008 by jlong1@luc.edu